Here`s a look at what the Paris agreement does, how it works and why it is so crucial to our future. In December 2019, the European Council approved the goal of climate neutrality by 2050, in line with the commitments made in Paris. In December 2019, EU leaders approved the goal of making the EU climate neutral by 2050. Poland has not been able to commit to this goal at this stage and the European Council will return to this issue in June 2020. EU heads of state and government have recognised the need to ensure a cost-effective, socially equitable and equitable transition, taking into account different national situations. National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement.
Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   The origin of the 1.5oC limit set in the Paris Agreement stems from the concern of countries at risk about the negative consequences of a warming of 2oC. In 2014, the UNFCCC established a process to determine whether Cancun`s long-term goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius is sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change and to consider “strengthening the long-term global goal based on the best available scientific knowledge, including an average global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius.” This process ended in 2015 with the final report of its scientific arm (Structured Expert Dialogue), which concluded that the use of the global warming limit of 2oC as a “protection barrier” was not safe and that governments should instead aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius. It was found that the 2oC limit was not in line with the convention`s ultimate goal of “preventing dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the climate system.” This was an important contribution to the ongoing negotiations on the Paris Agreement at the time and ultimately led to the long-term goal of the Paris Agreement on temperature in Article 2.1, as described above.